Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides (HHBPs)

Advanced testing methods now allow for the detection of pesticides in water at very low levels. Small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source water for drinking water do not necessarily indicate a health risk to consumers. EPA has developed human health benchmarks for 430 pesticides to enable our partners to inform: (1) whether the detection level of a pesticide in drinking water or source waters for drinking water may indicate a potential health risk; and (2) the prioritization of water monitoring efforts.

The table below includes noncancer benchmarks for exposure to pesticides that may be found in surface or ground water sources of drinking water. Noncancer benchmarks for acute (one-day) and chronic (lifetime) drinking water exposures to each pesticide were derived for the most sensitive life stage, based on the available information. The table also includes cancer benchmarks for 48 of the pesticides that have toxicity information that indicates the potential to lead to cancer. The HHBP table includes pesticides for which EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs has available toxicity data but for which EPA has not yet developed either enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (e.g., maximum contaminant levels) or non-enforceable Drinking Water Health Advisories.


Common Name and
Reference Document
CAS NumberAcute or One
Day PAD (RfD)


Acute or
One Day
HHBPs (ppb)
Acute HHBP Sensitive
Lifestage/ Population
Chronic or
Lifetime PAD


Chronic or Lifetime
HHBPs (ppb)
Chronic HHBP Sensitive


(Q1) Values(CSF)
(mg/kg/per day) -1


Carcinogenic HHBP
(E-6 to E-4 )
1,2,4-Triazole288-88-0 0.03200Children0.00530General Population--
2, 4 - DB DMA2758-42-10.154200Females 13-49 yrs0.15890General Population--
2,4-DP-p + salt & ester15165-67-0 1.258330Children0.06400General Population--
2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM)2008-58-40.1700Children0.045270General Population--
3,5-Dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile butyrate3861-41-4 0.08500Children0.01589General Population--
4-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid122-88-3------1.327810General Population--
ADBAC53516-76-0, 68424-85-1, 8001-54-5, 139-08-2, 8045-21-4, 73049-75-9, 121-54-0, 1330-85-4, 61789-71-7, 85409-23-0, 689-56-79-6, 68989-01-5, 68391-01-5, 63449-41-2, 61789-18-2------0.442600General Population--
Abamectin71751-41-20.002517Children0.002515General Population--
Acephate115096-11-2, 30560-19-10.00032Children0.00032Females 13-49 yrs--
Acequinocyl57960-19-70.073490Children0.027160General Population--
Acetamiprid135410-20-70.1700Children0.071420General Population--
Acetochlor34256-82-1------0.02100General Population--
Acibenzolar-S-methyl135158-54-20.082550Children0.082460Females 13-49 yrs--
Afidopyropen915972-17-70.164500Females 13-49 yrs0.08500General Population--
Allethrins584-79-2 0.03200Children0.00850General Population--
Aluminum Phosphide20859-73-80.018120Children0.011366.9General Population--
Amicarbazone129909-90-60.1700Children0.023140General Population--
Aminocyclopyrachlor + ester & salt858954-83-3 ------2.7916500General Population--
Aminopyralid + salts150114-71-9 ------0.53000General Population--
Amisulbrom348635-87-0210000Children0.543200General Population--
Amitraz33089-61-10.012583.3Children0.00053General Population--
Anthraquinone84-65-1 ------------0.06170.48-48.0
Aquashade2650-18-2, 92170-50-8, 1394-21-0------530000General Population--
Asulam + sodium salt3337-71-1 ------0.362100General Population--
Azinphos-methyl86-50-00.00320Children0.00158.9General Population--
Azoxystrobin131860-33-80.674500Children0.181070General Population--
Benalaxyl-M98243-83-5------0.02100General Population0.00595.01-501
Benfluralin1861-40-1------0.00530General Population--
Benomyl17804-35-20.025170Children0.01377General Population0.0023912.4-1240
Bensulfuron methyl83055-99-6------0.21000General Population--
Bensulide741-58-20.151000Children0.00530General Population--
Benthiavalicarb-isopropyl177406-68-7------0.099590General Population0.0627950.47115-47.115
Benzene Sulfonic Acid68584-22-5------0.53000General Population--
Benzobicyclon156963-66-5------0.6363760General Population--
Benzobicyclon (Metabolite B)156963-66-50.000271.8Children0.000040.2General Population--
Benzovindiflupyr1072957-71-10.1700Children0.082490General Population--
Beta Cyfluthrin68359-37-50.011778Children--------
Bicyclopyrone3520 I 0-68-50.01300Females 13-49 yrs0.000281.7General Population--
Bifenazate149877-41-80.13000Females 13-49 yrs0.0160General Population--
Bispyribac-sodium125401-92-5 ------0.1600General Population--
Bitertanol55179-31-20.051000Females 13-49 yrs0.002112General Population--
Bixafen581809-46-32.517000Children0.03200General Population--
Boscalid188425-85-6------0.221300General Population--
Bromoxynil, phenol + esters56634-95-8 0.08500Children0.01589General Population0.1030.287-28.7
Bromuconazole116255-48-20.13000Females 13-49 yrs0.00950General Population--
Buprofezin69327-76-0260000Females 13-49 yrs0.033200General Population--
Butafenacil134605-64-4------0.01271General Population--
Butoxypolypropylene Glycol9003-13-8------1.27100General Population--
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a Formula for deriving Acute HHBP for Children = [aPAD (mg/kg/day) x 1000 (µg/mg)] / [0.15 (L/kg-day) Drinking Water Intake-Body Weight (DWI-BW) ratio]; Formula for deriving Acute HHBP for Females 13-49 Years = [aPAD (mg/kg/day) x 1000 (µg/mg)] / 0.0354 (L/kg/day) DWI-BW ratio

b Formula for deriving Chronic HHBP for General Population = [cPAD (mg/kg bw/day) x 1000 (µg/mg) x 0.2 RSC ] / 0.0338 (L/kg/day) DWI-BW ratio; Formula for deriving Chronic HHBP for Females 13-49 Years = [cPAD (mg/kg bw/day) x 1000 (µg/mg) x 0.2 RSC ] / 0.0354 (L/kg/day) DWI-BW ratio, and RSC = Relative Source Contribution assumed as 20%

c Where there is no value, refer to the document for the cancer classification and quantification.

d No value denotes that carcinogenic quantification is not applicable and therefore, no carcinogenic HHBP is determined.

e Formula for deriving carcinogenic HHBP (ppb) = [10-6 or 10-4/Drinking Water Unit Risk (ppb-1), where Drinking Water Unit Risk (ppb-1) = [CSF (per mg/kg/day) x 0.0338 (L/kg/day) adult DWI-BW ratio]/[1000 (µg/mg)]

f Represents the lowest benchmarks for the lifestage/population evaluated.

g Pesticide has no current registrations for food-use

h Pesticide is now classified as non-food use; benchmarks are based on tox data from 2017 HHBP update, using 2021 updated exposure factors.

i Pesticide was reevaluated by OPP with updated exposure pattern information demonstrating that no effects were seen at doses relevant for human health risk assessment; benchmarks were derived from 2017 OPP toxicity values using updated 2021 exposure factors.

j Mancozeb’s cancer risk is calculated by estimating exposure to mancozeb-derived ETU and using the ETU cancer potency factor (Q1*) of 6.01 x 10 -2 (mg/kg/day)-1